3 0 obj (Easy check: Lowest volume at the lowest temperature)

This courseware module is part of Penn State's College of Earth and Mineral Sciences' OER Initiative. 341 Palm olein. endobj Density is defined as mass per unit volume of a fluid. If you have the crude density given in °API, use the API-to-gravity converter. Calculation of theshrinkage of a subsurface sample of crude oil as the natural gas is evolved isone example of the use of liquid-density data. These applications will - due to browser restrictions - send data between your browser and our server.

endobj %���� Modern societies and a structural way of life is highly dependent on this product. >> Density is a state function and for a pure compound depends on both temperature and pressure and is shown by ρ. •Weight of a unit volume of gas or vapor compared to the weight of an equal volume of air •Bakken Crude Oil has a Vapor Density of: •2.5 –5.0. The densities of naturally occurring liquid hydrocarbon mixtures areimportant in many petroleum engineering computations. endobj /Subtype /Image ". /Length 2722 <> Characteristics of Crude Oil •The hydrocarbons in crude oil can generally be divided into four categories: •Paraffins: These can make up 15 to 60% of crude. /BitsPerComponent 8 Physical and Chemical Properties of Crude Oil and Oil Products 1- Density, Specific Gravity, and API Gravity Density is defined as mass per unit volume of a fluid. l�b����|����Jn0��¸�~�v�� $p��M�߶V;������w\�`��ˆ���[��߶}���I�w�^��J|�{�s]�z��z�Q�V� 8{�� ���]=q�=뽽B������RiY9L��b�M����6���1��R��+�2� Fe���z`7���}XF�Vl�`��� 0j�8����!=�bwL��(pb�r 2���o'�6�AQS.K���6V1l��6U�+b�B��UV� �U}�Gv��a��'����Y�Gj�G�V�ɓ*;���@t�)���>s�"��-�{`���W���s&�+�}e)@8H�%G�� cK::=�X����O��Р�?y@R����� ��V�5 �[. Crude oil is classified as light or heavy oil based on different physical properties, such as molecular weight, viscosity, density, and API gravity. 6 0 obj Rapeseed oil (HEAR) Rice bran oil. 9 0 obj <> This article describes simple equations to approximate changes to the properties of crude oil with changing temperature. <> The most common definition of heavy crude oil is crude oil with API gravity less than 20, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) and US geological survey (USGS).
371 Cottonseed oil . Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications! If a crude oil is buried deeply and for a long time, extensive breaking apart of the carbon chains can occur. endobj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 960 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> endstream stream Petroleum consists of a few organic compounds which include hydrogen, carbon, sulfur, and oxygen. Drill cutters are lifted to the surface by a circulating fluid system driven by a pump. 329. Cookies are only used in the browser to improve user experience. Therefore, the °API gravity of crude blends cannot be calculated by linear averaging of the component °APIs. The John A. Dutton e-Education Institute is the learning design unit of the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at The Pennsylvania State University. The drill but, which is at the end of the string is three cone shaped, and has hardened teeth. The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) defines light crude oil for domestic U.S. oil as having an API gravity between 37° API (840 kg/m ) and 42° API (816 kg/m ), while it defines light crude oil for non-U.S. oil as being between 32° API (865 kg/m ) and 42° API (816 kg/m ). You have 100 liters of a light crude oil with a density of 761 kg/m3 at 50°C. (Easy check: Lowest volume at the lowest temperature). endobj Oil is a very important part of today's world. In the Density vs temperature figure(°C), you se that the light grey line represent this crude oil. In the Density vs temperature figure (°C), you see that the dark grey line represent this crude oil. Using API gravity, the conventional crude oils can be generally considered as light (°API>30), medium (30>°API>22), and heavy (°API<22). Recalculation of density of oil for different temperature and pressure values. Author: Dr. Semih Eser, Professor of Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, Penn State. Specific gravities of the components can be averaged, though, to determine the specific gravity of the resulting blend. The API of crude oils varies typically between 10 and 50, with most crude oils falling in the range of 20-45. The oil and water are the two different organic compounds which have not much difference in their density. To be sure you have used the correct figure for correction factors, the easy rule is that the volume increases with increasing temperature. Olive oil Palm oil . Density data are reported on 15 saturated hydrocarbon liquids in the rangeof 35? Density of crude oil as function of temperature - Variations in crude oil density are shown … One can note from Eq. Corn oil . Online calculator. endobj

In rotary drilling, the drill string, which is a series of pipes, is supported by what is known as a derrick. At the same time, most of the sulfur compounds in the oil are broken down. At 50°C the correction factor is 0.965. At a reference temperature of 15.6°C, the density of liquid water is 0.999 g/cm3 (999 kg/m3), which is equivalent to 8.337 lb/gal (U.S.). The National Energy Boardof Canada defines light crude oil as having a density less than 875.7 kg/m (API gr… 8 0 obj The clear cut definition of light and heavy crude varies because the classification is based more on practical grounds than theoretical. in. 5 0 obj

How will the volume change if you heat it to 250°C? %���� stream <> It is usually found in large quantities below the surface of the earth and is used as a fuel and raw material in the chemical industry. Density of crude oil as function of temperature, en: crude oil temperature density petroleum lubricating oil lubricant volume correction ASTM D1250. Petroleum or crude oil has a high energy density, which is approximately 45 MJ/kg. What is the volume at 15°C? Please read AddThis Privacy for more information. /Type /XObject "Thus for the instance the density of a crude oil of 20° R. has been found as 42° B.= 0.8139, which corrected would be (6 x 0.001 = 0.006) 0.8145." The volume of your crude oil at 15°C is 100liters*0.965 = 97 liters. endobj No, who cares right? Katz has indicateda method based on the principle of additive volumes of the components and usingapparent densities for methane and ethane. Vapor Density. 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition. So, the answer to the question in the beginning better be yes, because without petroleum life as we know it would be boring, if not impossible. to 250?F. The volume of your crude oil at 250°C is 1000m3*1.188 = 1188 m3.

<> The string is than rotated on the derrick floor. Therefore, the heavy (high-density) crude oils tend to have high concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, whereas the light (low-density) crude oils have high concentrations of paraffinic hydrocarbons. Correlations for crude oil density and temperature are found by use of tools based on ASTM D 1250-04 and IP 200/04 (API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 11- physical properties Data, Section 1:Temperature and pressure volume correction factors for generalised crude oils, refined products and lubricating oils).
Vapor Pressure. <> For example, benzene has an SG of 0.883 (°API of 28.7), whereas n-hexane has an SG of 0.665 (°API of 81.3). (Easy check: Lowest volume at the lowest temperature). 2217 Earth and Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 At 50°C the correction factor is 0.965. S G (60 ∘ F / 60 ∘ F), or (15.6 ∘ C / 15.6 ∘ C) = (Density of liquid at 60 ∘ F in g / cm 3) / (0.999 g / cm 3) In the early years of the petroleum industry, the American Petroleum Institute (API) adopted the API gravity (°API) as a measure of the crude oil density. A method of computing the shrinkage of crude oilsbased upon the gas-oil ratio, gas analysis, and crude gravity is outlined.