As with animal intelligence, measuring human intelligence runs into problems when extrapolation extends beyond its boundaries. Indeed, sameness and differentness can readily be detected in purely visual materials, perhaps permitting their apprehension by nonverbal animals. Human babies start passing the test around their first birthdays—but most animals, even chimps, fail. But does it matter? In fact, elephants often consult me.” Although chimpanzees are not reputed to be master mnemonists like elephants, they have nevertheless been found to possess remarkable memory abilities. Compelling evidence of addition by monkeys has been obtained by presenting them with two successive arrays of dots in the center of their computer monitor: for example, a first array of 2 dots followed by a second array of 6 dots. Labs as resource-abundant as Duke’s Canine Cognition Center are rare. Pig A will almost instantly follow Pig B if Pig B shows signs of knowing where food is stored, and Pig B will try to throw Pig A off its trail. The exciting news is that behavioral scientists have developed powerful methods that allow us to gain an unprecedented appreciation of animal cognition. Each correct response led to the offset of that numeral until the screen was cleared of all numerals. The next year, he was pitted against British memory champion Ben Pridmore and emerged victorious. How can we teach animals to report arrays of identical visual items as “same” and arrays of nonidentical items as “different”? All that can be deduced is that, compared to humans, her ability to smell is spectacular. But, in general, it’s difficult to get funding for robust animal-intelligence experiments because the field is competing for grants with areas of research, like those on cancer and AIDS, that have more possibility to improve human life. Unfortunately, when measuring these capacities in animals, it is often difficult to achieve the sample sizes and conditions required for scientific accuracy. There’s no kingdom classification just for humans. Rico was extraordinary, renewing public interest in an animal’s language-processing abilities for the first time since the early 1900s, when the public thought Clever Hans the horse could count, make change, and tell time. The biggest challenges to the field’s development are that it relies too heavily on anecdotes, that controlled experiments with large-enough sample sizes are difficult to design, that many consider it irrelevant, and that "intelligence" as a concept has been overly anthropomorphized. Maebe occupies a different niche, and, for her, as with all animals, the main reason for testing 'intelligence' is to reveal the skills necessary for survival in her niche, not to examine how she would fair if she occupied the human one. Estimating and representing number is foundational to more advanced numerical operations, such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing. Intelligence is notoriously difficult to measure. A young chimpanzee uses a stem as a tool to remove termites from a termite mound, Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Killer whales are also one of the small number of species—along with human beings (Homo sapiens), short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens), belugas…, …thought to be the most intelligent of all invertebrate animals. Of course, it is obvious that we cannot hope to gain insights into animal intelligence by patiently waiting for animals to tell us their thoughts—they do not speak our language. It has been said that the most fundamental principle of cognition is memory—the essential condition of all mental life. Does such olfactory aptitude mean she’s a genius, on par with master sommeliers? This is why the field still relies mostly on anecdotes. Again, this transfer test was essential to prove that a general cognitive process had been documented that transcended the specific numbers of dots shown in training. In 2004, German researchers discovered a border collie who could learn the name of an object in one try, had a vocabulary of 200 words, and remembered them all a month later. We suggest a simple answer: by pursuing animal cognition with the methods of natural science. Humans who were tested under identical conditions struggled to keep pace with the best of the chimpanzees, which interestingly were the younger animals studied. …and show evidence of rapid learning. So, the empirical hallmarks of abstract conceptual thought—robust same-different discrimination learning and transfer—can be decisively documented with animals. Without memory, we could not profit from our past experience, organize our actions in the present, or effectively plan for the future. Pigeons and baboons not only acquire this task, but they also transfer their learning to brand-new same and different testing arrays; such transfer is necessary to document the generality of same-different discrimination behavior. Critically, the concept of number demands an abstract cognitive process, because numerosity must be determined irrespective of the physical features of the items; two, five, or eight items can equally apply to apples, aardvarks, or automobiles. Responding appropriately in such an orderly manner clearly demands a well-developed memory. In addition, the bottlenose dolphin has the longest social memory of any nonhuman species; several members of the species…, Although several cetaceans are easily trained and much has been theorized about the possible intelligence of whales and dolphins, little is known for certain. Intelligence is one of the defining features of being human and it comes in various forms. However, elephants locate food with their sense of smell. In the midst of her happy dance, she sometimes chases her tail. (He was really just responding to his owner’s body language.). The center has also built a network of over a thousand dogs on which they can conduct experiments. Here, again, we exploit modern technology by presenting multiple visual stimuli on a computer monitor equipped with a touch-sensitive surface. This hypothesis, however, does not always hold. Equally important, a person who exhibits or does not exhibit aptitude in one area can only be compared within the relevant frame. Any incorrect response led to the offset of any remaining numerals, the sounding of a buzzer, and a 5-second penalty, or “time out” period, after which the next trial was given. Yet, this is only a partial listing of the full range of animal intellectual abilities. Behavioral scientists are more expansively exploring animal cognition, its relation to human intelligence, its biological bases, and its adaptive significance. For humans, tests such as the SAT will always be under attack because it’s impossible to shrink intelligence to two dimensions. The "mirror test" checks for self-awareness. Animal Intelligence Hierarchy focuses on the ladder of preferences of different species of animals created by scientists on the basis of their intelligence or smartness. Research deploying these new behavioral methods forces us to abandon the stale convention that thought without language is impossible. …that animals might differ in intelligence, with those more closely related to humans sharing more of their intellectual abilities, is commonly traced back to Charles Darwin. We reward animals with food for touching one button when visual arrays contain two or more identical items (effectively saying “same”), and we reward animals for touching a second button when visual arrays contain two or more nonidentical items (effectively saying “different”); incorrect responses are not rewarded and lead to repetition of the trial to encourage learning.