Which of the following sentences is punctuated correctly? Where a participle phrase appears in a sentence changes the way we punctuate it, as does its importance to the meaning of the sentence as a whole. Words that function as participles also function as verbs and sometimes as gerund phrases, so you cannot just assume that every -ing word or -ed word is a participle. Participle Phrases. I was sitting on the ground in a shady corner. A participle is a word formed from a verb. Note that in the example sentence given above, the phrase ‘hearing a loud noise’ which is introduced by a participle is called a participle phrase. 4. Before the main clause, the participial phrase is followed by a comma: After the main clause, it is preceded by a comma: In mid-sentence position, it is set off by commas before and after: In each sentence below, the participial phrase clearly modifies the subject ("my sister") and suggests a cause: But consider what happens when the participial phrase moves to the end of the sentence: Here the logical order of cause-effect is reversed, and as a result, the sentence may be less effective than the first two versions. In the following The Difference Between Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives, Dangling Participle: Explanation and Examples, Gerunds: Special Verbs That Are Also Nouns, Understanding the Types of Verbs in English Grammar, 100 Key Terms Used in the Study of Grammar, Free Modifiers: Definition, Usage, and Examples, Understanding Present and Past Participles, Parallelism in Writing for English Learners, Definition and Examples of Reduced Adverb(ial) Clauses, Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. These phrases often serve as an adjective in a sentence. participle phrase is underlined): If the noun/pronoun that the participle phrase describes is When a participial phrase comes at the beginning of a Examples (the participle If the sentence still makes grammatical sense, you've got a gerund clause: If not, it's a participial phrase. phrase is in bold, the participle is underlined, the noun or pronoun which To make it clear that this description is integral to the sentence’s meaning, we do not use commas to … Really Learn When should a participle phrase appearing in the middle of a sentence be set apart by commas? Verb: to swim; Present participle: swimming; Gerund: swimming; Example of present participle in use: The swimming pool is heated for the summer. I saw Arthur running for the bus. Participle phrases consist of, at the minimum, a participle and an object. 5. They can't stand alone as complete sentences. phrase is underlined): Mike passed the It usually follows the noun or pronoun which it describes. 6. For example, a participial phrase that indicates a cause usually precedes the main clause and sometimes follows the subject, but only rarely appears at the end of the sentence. We can form phrases using present, past, perfect, and passive perfect participles—each one changes the way the noun is modified. If the noun/pronoun that the participle phrase describes is 1. While the sentence absolutely works grammatically, some may misread that the job is feeling discouraged, instead of the sister. The first dishwasher was driven by a steam engine. 3. A participle may be followed by an adverb, a prepositional phrase, an adverb clause, or any combination of these. Participle Phrases vs. Gerunds. Notice that each phrase is modifying a noun. Copyright © 2010-2020 Really-Learn-English.com. NOT right before it – use a comma. Let’s look at some examples! What is a participle phrase? the past and looking forward to the future. A participle phrase also acts like an adjective. A participle is a word which is partly a verb and partly an adjective. https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Participle-Phrases.htm, When they function as adjectives, participles can form. The easiest way to tell whether a phrase is being used correctly is to look at the subject it is modifying. In the examples below, the participle phrases are shaded and the participles are in bold: The man carrying the bricks is my father.